– developed countries should take the lead in reducing financial aid, and funding is mentioned in the agreement. 52 Z.B., Germany, Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection, Construction and Safety of Reactors, “Third Biennial Report under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,” 2017 (Germany, BR3), p. 18 (“Germany pursues ambitious climate change targets. The federal government has set a target of reducing the country`s greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2020 compared to 1990. This target goes well beyond Germany`s target of reducing its emissions by 14% because, as part of the burden-sharing decision, it contributes to the EU`s target of a 20% reduction by 2020 by 2020. New Zealand, NC7, above 51, p. 69 (“Because New Zealand`s emission profile is very different from that of other industrialized countries… the cost of further weakening by New Zealand is expected to be higher. So all of New Zealand`s goals are ambitious”; South Africa, Department of Environmental Affairs, South Africa`s 2nd Biennial Update Report, 2017, p. 130 (“South Africa`s comprehensive approach to mitigation is informed in two contexts: first, its contribution as a responsible global citizen to international efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions”); United Kingdom, NC7, 21, p. 11 (`The United Kingdom has exceeded by 1% the reduction in CO2 emissions set on the national territory (2008-2012) and expects it to exceed by about 4 and 6% our second and third budgets covering the years 2013 to 2022. In doing so, we are also waiting for us to exercise our international commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. While each of these examples includes a gesture of recognition of mitigation efforts by other states, there is no valid intergovernmental comparison.
Moreover, each state can assess its ambitions only on its own. 44 They represent only a sample of works in this category. See also Ringius, L., Torvanger, A. – Underdal, A., “Burden Sharing and Fairness Principles in International Climate Policy” (2002) 2(1) International Environmental Agreements, p. 1-22CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Page, E.A., `Distributing the Burdens of Climate Change` (2008) 17(4) Environmental Politics, p. 556-75CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Elzen, M. – Hàhne, N., `Sharing the Reduction Effort to Limit Global Warming to 2-C` (2010) 10 (3) Climate Policy, p. 247-60CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Huhne, N., Den Elzen, M. Escalante, D., `Regional GHG Reduction Targets Based on Effort Sharing: A Comparison of Studies` (2014) 14 (1) Climate Policy, p. 122-47CrosRefGoogle, Kallbekken, S., Sélen, H. – Underdal, A., Equity and Spectrum of Mitigation Commitments in the 2015 Agreement (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Kuramochi, T.
et al. , Comparative Assessment of Japan`s Long-Term Carbon Budget under Different Effort-Sharing Principles” (2015) 16 (8) Climate Policy, pp.